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2001  2000  1999  1998   1997  1996  1995   1994  1988  Unpublished


Madl, T., Franklin, S., Chen, K., Trappl, R., & Montaldi, D. (2016). Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations. PloS one, 11(6), e0157343. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S., Madl, T., Strain, S., Faghihi, U., Dong, D., Kugele, S., Snaider, J., Agrawal, P., Chen, S. (2016). A LIDA cognitive model tutorial. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 105-130. doi: 10.1016/j.bica.2016.04.003 (View: PDF)

Madl, T., Franklin, S., Chen, K., Montaldi, D., & Trappl, R. (2016 in press). Towards real-world capable spatial memory in the LIDA cognitive architecture. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 87-104. (View: PDF)


Dong, D., & Franklin, S. (2015). Modeling Sensorimotor Learning in LIDA Using a Dynamic Learning Rate. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 14, 1-9. doi: 10.1016 (View: PDF)

Dong, D., Franklin, S., & Agrawal, P. (2015). Estimating Human Movements Using Memory of Errors. Procedia Computer Science, 71, 1-10. doi: 10.1016 (View: PDF)

Madl, T., Franklin, S. 2015. Constrained Incrementalist Moral Decision Making for a Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture In: A Construction Manual for Robots' Ethical Systems, Publisher: Springer, Eds: Robert Trappl (View: PDF)

Madl, T., Franklin, S., Snaider, J., & Faghihi, U. 2015. Continuity and the Flow of Time—A Cognitive Science Perspective. In B. Mölder, V. Arstila & P. Øhrstrøm (Eds.), Philosophy and Psychology of Time: Springer. (View: PDF)

Faghihi, U., Estey, C., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2015). A Cognitive Model Fleshes Out Kahneman’s Fast and Slow Systems. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 11, 38-52. (View: PDF)

Dong, D., & Franklin, S. (2015). A New Action Execution Module for the Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent (LIDA): The Sensory Motor System. Cognitive Computation. doi: 10.1007/s12559-015-9322-3. (View: PDF, Figures)


Dong, D., & Franklin, S. (2014). The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 5(1), 47-66. (View: PDF)

Agrawal, P., & Franklin, S. (2014). Multi-Layer Cortical Learning Algorithms. Paper presented at 2014 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, Cognitive Algorithms, Mind, and Brain (CCMB) (pp. 141, and 147). (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., & Franklin, S. (2014). Vector LIDA. Procedia Computer Science, 41, 188-203. (View: PDF)

Strain, S., Kugele, S., & Franklin, S. (2014). The Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent (LIDA) and Medical Agent X (MAX): Computational Intelligence for Medical Diagnosis. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, Orlando, FL (SSCI 2014), Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Human-like Intelligence (CIHLI), 78-85. (View: PDF)

Dong, D. & Franklin, S. (2014). Sensory Motor System: Modeling the Process of Action Execution. In M. Bello P., Guarini M., McShane M. & Scassellati B. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2145-2150). Austin TX: Cognitive Science Society. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S. (2014). History, motivations and core themes of AI. In K. Frankish & W. Ramsey (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 15-33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(View: PDF)

Franklin, S., Madl, T., D'Mello, S., & Snaider, J. (2014). LIDA: A Systems-level Architecture for Cognition, Emotion, and Learning. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 6(1), 19-41.
doi: 10.1109/TAMD.2013.2277589 (View: PDF)

Madl, T., Franklin, S., Chen, K., Montaldi, D., & Trappl, R. (2014). Bayesian Integration of Information in Hippocampal Place Cells. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e89762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089762 (View: Online)

Snaider, J., & Franklin, S. (2014). Modular Composite Representation. Cognitive Computation, 6(3), 510-527. doi: 10.1007/s12559-013-9243-y (View: PDF)


Baars, B. J. (2013). A scientific approach to silent consciousness. Frontiers in psychology, 4.
(View: PDF)

Baars, B. J. (2013). Multiple sources of conscious odor integration and propagation in olfactory cortex. Frontiers in psychology, 4. (View: PDF)

Strain, S. & Franklin, S. (2013). Authors' Response to Commentaries. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 4(2), 48-58. (View: PDF)

McCall, R. & Franklin, S. (2013). Cortical Learning Algorithms with Predictive Coding for a Systems-Level Cognitive Architecture. Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems (pp. 149-166). Baltimore, MD, USA. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S., Strain, S., McCall, R., & Baars, B. (2013). Conceptual Commitments of the LIDA Model of Cognition. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 4(2), 1-22, DOI: 10.2478/jagi-2013-0002 (View: PDF)

Madl, T., Franklin, S., Chen, K., & Trappl, R. (2013). Spatial Working Memory in the LIDA Cognitive Architecture. In R. West & T. Stewart (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modelling (pp. 384-390). Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University. (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., Franklin, S., Strain, S., & George, E. O. (2013). Integer sparse distributed memory: Analysis and results. Neural Networks, 46, 144-153.

Baars, B.J., Franklin, S., and Ramsøy, T.Z. (2013). Global workspace dynamics: Cortical "binding and propagation" enables conscious contents. Front. Psychol., 4:200. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00200


Baars, B. J., & Edelman, D. B. (2012). Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. Physics of life reviews, 9(3), 285-294. (View: PDF)

Ramamurthy, U., Franklin, S., & Agrawal, P. (2012). Self-system in a model of cognition. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 4(2), 325-333. (View: PDF)

Madl, T., & Franklin, S. (2012). A LIDA-based Model of the Attentional Blink. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM 2012). (View: PDF)

Faghihi, U., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2012). A Computational Model of Attentional Learning in a Cognitive Agent. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 2, 25-36. (View: PDF)

McCall, R. & Franklin, S. (2012). Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA: A commentary on Thórisson and Helgasson's "Cognitive architectures and autonomy: A Comparative Review" [Peer commentary by R. McCall & S. Franklin]. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 3(2), 42-44, DOI: 10.2478/v10229-011-0016-2 (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., & Franklin, S. (2012). Extended Sparse Distributed Memory and Sequence Storage. Cognitive Computation, 4(2), 172-180. doi: 10.1007/s12559-012-9125-8 (View: PDF)

Faghihi, U., & Franklin, S. (2012). The LIDA Model as a Foundational Architecture for AGI. In P. Wang & B. Goertzel (Eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence (pp. 105-123). Paris: Atlantis Press. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S., Strain, S., Snaider, J., McCall, R., & Faghihi, U. (2012). Global Workspace Theory, its LIDA Model and the Underlying Neuroscience. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 1, 32-43.
doi: 10.1016/j.bica.2012.04.001 (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2012). Time production and representation in a conceptual and computational cognitive model. Cognitive Systems Research, 13(1), 59-71.
doi: 10.1016/j.cogsys.2010.10.004 (View: PDF)


Edelman, G. M., Gally, J. A., & Baars, B. J. (2011). Biology of consciousness. Frontiers in psychology, 2. (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., & Franklin, S. (2011). Extended Sparse Distributed Memory. Paper presented at the Biological Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2011, Washington D.C. USA. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S. (2011). Global Workspace Theory, Shanahan, and LIDA. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 3(2), 327-337. doi: 10.1142/S1793843011000728 (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2011). The LIDA Framework as a General Tool for AGI. The Fourth Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. (View: PDF)

D'Mello, S., & Franklin, S. (2011). Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology. New ideas in psychology, 29(3), 217-227. (View: PDF, Online: DOI)

Madl, T., Baars, B. J., & Franklin, S. (2011). The Timing of the Cognitive Cycle. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e14803.
(View: Online, PDF)

Ramamurthy, U., Franklin, S. (2011). Memory Systems for Cognitive Agents. Proceedings of Human Memory for Artificial Agents Symposium at the Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behavior Convention (AISB'11), University of York, UK, 2011, p 35-40.
(View: PDF)

Ramamurthy, U., Franklin, S. (2011). Self System in a model of Cognition. Proceedings of Machine Consciousness Symposium at the Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behavior Convention (AISB'11), University of York, UK, 2011, p 51-54.
(View: PDF)

Lopez De Luise, D., Barrera, G., & Franklin, S. (2011). Robot Localization using Consciousness. Journal of Pattern Recognition Research, 6, 1-23.
(View: PDF)

Wallach, W., Allen, C., & Franklin, S. (2011). Consciousness and Ethics: Artificially Conscious Moral Agents. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 3(1), 177-192.
(View: Abstract)

Strain, S., & Franklin, S. (2011). Modeling medical diagnosis using a comprehensive cognitive architecture. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2(2), 241-257. (View: PDF)

D'Mello, Sidney K., & Franklin, S. (2011). A Cognitive Model's View of Animal Cognition. Current Zoology, 54(4), 499-512.
(View: DOC)


McCall, R., Snaider, J., & Franklin, S. (2010). Sensory and perceptual scene representation. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research. (View: DOC)

Wilkes, D. M., Franklin, S., Erdemir, E., Gordon, S., Strain, S., Miller, K., & Kawamura, K. (2010). Heterogeneous Artificial Agents for Triage Nurse Assistance 2010 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoids Robots (pp. 130-137). Nashville, TN, USA: IEEE. (View: DOC)

Baars, B. 2010. Spontaneous Repetitive Thoughts Can Be Adaptive: Postscript on McKay and Vane (2010). Psychological Bulletin. (View: PDF)

McCall, R., Franklin, S., Friedlander, D. (2010). Grounded Event-Based and Modal Representations for Objects, Relations, Beliefs, Etc. Paper presented at the FLAIRS-23, Daytona Beach, FL.
(View: PDF)

Franklin, S., & Baars, B. (2010). Two varieties of Unconscious Processes. In E. Perry, D. Collerton, H. Ashton & F. LeBeau (Eds.), New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness (pp. 91-102). Amsterdam: John Benjamin.
(View: DOC)

Franklin, S., & Baars, B. J. (2010). Spontaneous remembering is the norm: What integrative models tell us about human consciousness and memory. In John H. Mace (Ed.), The Act of Remembering: Toward an understanding of how we recall the past. Oxford: Blackwell.
(View: DOC)

Snaider, J., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2010). The Immediate Present Train Model Time Production and Representation for Cognitive Agents. Paper presented at the AAAI Spring Symposium on "It's All In the Timing", Palo Alto, CA.
(View: PDF)

[This paper is largely similar in content to "Time Production & Representation in a Conceptual & Computational Cognitive Model". These papers are intended for different audiences.]

Wallach, W., Franklin, S., & Allen, C. (2010). A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents. In W. Wallach & S. Franklin (Eds.), Topics in Cognitive Science, special issue on Cognitive Based Theories of Moral Decision Making. pp. 454-485 Cognitive Science Society.
(View: PDF)


Franklin, S. (2009). Into the Future. In R. Ruggies (Ed.), Knowledge Management Tools (pp. 287-295). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. (Reprinted from Artificial Minds)

Ramamurthy, U., & Franklin, S. (2009). Resilient Architectures To Facilitate Both Functional Consciousness and Phenomenal Consciousness in Machines. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 1(2), 243-253. doi: 10.1142/S1793843009000220

Baars, B. (2009). William James on the Mind and Its Fringes. In: William P. Banks, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness. v. 2, 459-468. Oxford: Elsevier. (View: PDF)

Snaider, J., McCall, R., & Franklin, S. (2009). Time Production and Representation in a Conceptual and Computational Cognitive Model. Paper presented at the AAAI Fall Symposium on "BICA",Washington, DC. (View: PDF)

Franklin, Stan, Sidney D'Mello, Bernard J Baars, and Uma Ramamurthy. (2009). Evolutionary pressures for perceptual stability and self as guides to machine consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness.
(View: Abstract or PDF)

Baars, Bernard J and Stan Franklin. (2009). Consciousness is computational: The LIDA model of global workspace theory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness.
(View:Abstract or PDF)


Franklin, S., Baars, B. J., & Ramamurthy, U. (2008). A Phenomenally Conscious Robot? APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers, 08(1), 2-4.

Baars, B. J., Franklin, S., & Ramamurthy, U. (2008). Quod Erat Demonstrandum. APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers, 08(1), 6-7.

Baars, B. (2008). Velasquez and the Postmodern Circle of Mirrors. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, 33-37. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S., & Ferkin, M. H. (2008). Using Broad Cognitive Models and Cognitive Robotics to Apply Computational Intelligence to Animal Cognition. In T. G. Smolinski, M. M. Milanova & A.-E. Hassanien (Eds.), Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biology: Current Trends and Open Problems (pp. 363-394): Springer-Verlag.
(View:Abstract or DOC)

Ferkin, Michael H, Andrew A Pierce, and Stan Franklin. 2008 Self-referencing and recognition in meadow voles, microtus pennsylvanicus. Animal Cognition 114: 863-874.
(View: Abstract or PDF)

Ferkin, Michael H, A Combs, Javier delBarco-Trillo, Andrew A Pierce, and S Franklin. 2008. Meadow voles, microtus pennsylvanicus, have the capacity to recall the “what”, “where”, and “when” of a single past event. Animal Cognition 11: 147-159.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Friedlander, David and Stan Franklin. 2008. LIDA and a Theory of Mind. In Artificial General Intelligence (AGI-08), ed. Ben Goertzel and Pei Wang. Memphis, TN, USA: IOS Press.
(View:Abstract or PDF or DOC)


Franklin, S., Goertzel, B., Samsonovich, A., & Wang, P. (2007). Four Contemporary AGI Designs: a Comparative Treatment. FRONTIERS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND APPLICATIONS, 157, 25.

Baars, B. & Franklin, S. 2007. An architectural model of conscious and unconscious brain functions: Global Workspace Theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961. (View: PDF)

Baars, B.J., Uma Ramamurthy, and Stan Franklin. (2007). How deliberate, spontaneous and unwanted memories emerge in a computational model of consciousness. In Involuntary memory: New perspectives in memory approach, ed. John H. Mace. Oxford: Blackwell.
(View:Abstract or DOC)

D'Mello, Sidney K. and Stan Franklin. (2007). Exploring the complex interplay between ai and consciousness. In AI and Consciousness: Theoretical Foundations and Current Approaches - AAAI Fall Symposium. Washington, D.C.: AAAI.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, Stan. (2007). A foundational architecture for artificial general intelligence. In Advances in artificial general intelligence: Concepts, architectures and algorithms, proceedings of the agi workshop 2006, ed. Ben Goertzel and Pei Wang:36-54. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
(View:Abstract or DOC)

Franklin, S. (2007). Review of Walter J. Freeman, How Brains Make Up their Minds. Minds and Machines, 17(3), 353-356. (View:PDF)

Franklin, S., Uma Ramamurthy, Sidney K. D'Mello, Lee McCauley, Aregahegn Negatu, Rodrigo Silva L., and Vivek Datla. (2007). LIDA: A computational model of global workspace theory and developmental learning. In AAAI Fall Symposium on AI and Consciousness: Theoretical Foundations and
Current Approaches. Arlington, VA: AAAI.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

McGovern, K & Baars, B. 2007. Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. In Philip D. Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch, & Evan Thompson (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness, Cambridge U. Press. (View: PDF)

Negatu, Aregahegn, Sidney D'Mello, and Stan Franklin. (2007). Cognitively inspired anticipatory adaptation and associated learning mechanisms for autonomous agents. In ABiALS-2006 - Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems, ed. Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Giovanni Pezzulo and Gianluca Baldassarre. Rome, Italy: Springer
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Sun, Ron and Stan Franklin. (2007). Computational models of consciousness: A taxonomy and some examples. In Cambridge handbook of consciousness, ed. P D Zelazo and Morris Moscovitch:151­174.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
(View:Abstract or PDF)


Baars, B. 2006. Some Essential Differences between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 6, 363-371. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S.& Ramamurthy, U., (2006). Motivations, Values and Emotions: 3 sides of the same coin, Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Epigenetic Robotics, Paris, France, September 2006, Lund University Cognitive Studies, 128, p. 41-48.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

D'Mello S., Ramamurthy U., and Franklin S. (2006). Realizing Forgetting in a Modified Sparse Distributed Memory System. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 1992-1997), Vancouver, Canada.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Ramamurthy, U., Baars, B., D'Mello, S. K., & Franklin, S. (2006). LIDA: A Working Model of Cognition. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Eds: Danilo Fum, Fabio Del Missier and Andrea Stocco; pp 244-249. Edizioni Goliardiche, Trieste, Italy.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

D'Mello, S. K., S. Franklin, U. Ramamurthy, and B. J. Baars. (2006). A Cognitive Science Based Machine Learning Architecture. AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Series. American Association for Artificial Intelligence. Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA. March 2006.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

D'Mello, S. K., U. Ramamurthy, A. Negatu, and S. Franklin. (2006). A Procedural Learning Mechanism for Novel Skill Acquisition. In Workshop on Motor Development: Proceeding of Adaptation in Artificial and Biological Systems, AISB'06, vol. 1, ed. T. Kovacs, and J. A. R. Marshall. Bristol, England: Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, S. and F. G. Patterson, Jr. (2006). The Lida Architecture:  Adding New Modes of Learning to an Intelligent, Autonomous, Software Agent. Integrated Design and Process Technology, IDPT-2006, San Diego, CA, Society for Design and Process Science.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, S. and Ferkin, M. (2006). An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach. In Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews. 1:36-52
(View:Abstract or PDF)


Anwar, Ashraf and Stan Franklin. (2005). A Sparse Distributed Memory Capable of Handling Small Cues, SDMSCue. In High Performance Computational Science and Engineering: Ifip tc5 Workshop on High Performance Computational Science and Engineering(HPCSE), World Computer Congress, August 22–27, 2004, Toulouse, France, ed. Michael K Ng, Andrei Doncescu, Laurence T Yang and Tau O. Leng:23–38. New York: Springer Science+Business Media Inc.
(View: PDF)

Baars, B. 2005. Subjective experience is probably not limited to humans: The evidence from neurobiology and behavior. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, pp. 7-21. (View: PDF)

D'Mello S., Ramamurthy U., and Franklin S. (2005). Encoding and Retrieval Efficiency of Episodic Data in a Modified Sparse Distributed MemorySystem. Proceedings   of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Stresa, Italy.
(View:Abstract or PDF or Doc)

Kelemen, A., S. Franklin, and Y. Liang. (2005). Constraint Satisfaction in "Conscious" Software Agents - A Practical Application. Applied Artificial Intelligence 19:491-514  
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Kelemen, A., S. Franklin, and Y. Liang. Learning High Quality Decisions with Neural Networks in "Conscious" Software Agents. Journal of World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society on Systems, 4:1482-1492.  
(View:Abstract or Doc)

Franklin, S., “Cognitive Robots: Perceptual associative memory and learning, Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2005), Nashville, TN, August 13-15, 2005, pp. 427-433.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, S. (2005). Evolutionary Pressures and a Stable World for Animals and Robots: A Commentary on Merker. Consciousness and Cognition 14:115-118
(View: Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, S.; 2005. Perceptual Memory and Learning: Recognizing, Categorizing, and Relating. Symposium on Developmental Robotics; American Association for Artifical Intelligence (AAAI); Stanford University, Palo Alto CA, USA; March 21-23, 2005
(View:Abstract or RTF)

Franklin , S. 2005. A "Consciousness" Based Architecture for a Functioning Mind. In Visions of Mind, ed. D. Davis . Hershey , PA : IDEA Group, Inc.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin S, Baars BJ, Ramamurthy U, Ventura M (2005). The Role of Consciousness in Memory. Brains, Minds and Media, Vol.1, bmm150 (urn:nbn:de:0009-3-1505)
(View :Abstract or PDF)

Greenspan, R. & Baars, B. 2005. Consciousness eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the rise of reductionistic biology after 1900. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, pp. 219-230. (View: PDF)

Uma Ramamurthy, Sidney K. D'Mello, and Stan Franklin. "Role of Consciousness in Episodic Memory Processes" (ASSC9 Abstract) presented at the Nineth Conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness - ( Pasadena , CA , 2005)


Baars, B. 2004. Global workspace theory of consciousness: toward a cognitive neuroscience of human experienece? Progress in Brain Research Vol. 150. Ch. 4. (View: PDF)

Uma Ramamurthy and Stan Franklin."Self-Preservation Mechanisms for Cognitive Software Agents"  , First World Congress on Lateral-Computing (WCLC2004) ( Bangalore, India, December 17-19, 2004).

Franklin Stan and Lee McCauley; Feelings and Emotions as Motivators and Learning Facilitators. Architectures for Modeling Emotions. AAAI Spring Symposia Technical Series Technical Reports SS-04-02.
(View:Abstract or PDF or Doc)

Franklin, S., and D. Jones; 2004, A Triage Information Agent (TIA) based on the IDA Technology. AAAI Fall Symposium on Dialogue Systems for Health Communication; American Association for Artificial Intelligence; Washington , DC , USA . October22-24,2004.
(View:Abstract or PDF  or  Doc)

Seth, A., & Baars, B. 2004. Neural Darwinism and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, pp 140-168. (View: PDF)

Uma Ramamurthy, Sidney K. D'Mello, and Stan Franklin. " Modified Sparse Distributed Memory as Transient Episodic Memory for Cognitive Software Agents " , IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics - SMC2004 ( The Hague , Netherlands , October 10-13, 2004).
(View:Abstract or PDF)


Anwar, A., & Franklin, S. (2003). Sparse Distributed Memory for "Conscious" Software Agents. Cognitive Systems Research, 4, 339–354. (View: DOC)

Baars, B. 2003. I.P. Pavlov and the Freedom Reflex. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (11), pp. 19-40. (View: PDF)

Baars, B. 2003. How Brain Reveals Mind. Neural Studies Support the Fundamental Role of Conscious Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 10, Numbers 9-10, 2003, pp. 100-114. (View: PDF)

Baars, B., Ramsoy, T, & Laureys, S. (2003). Brain, conscious experience and the observing self. TRENDS in Neurosciences, 26 (12), December 2003. (View: PDF)

Franklin , S. 2003. An Autonomous Software Agent for Navy Personnel Work: A Case Study. In Human Interaction with Autonomous Systems in Complex Environments: Papers from 2003 AAAI Spring Symposium, ed. D. Kortenkamp, and M. Freed. Palo Alto : AAAI.
( View:Abstract or Doc )

Franklin , S. 2003. IDA: A Conscious Artifact? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10:47-66
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Bernard Baars and Stan Franklin. “How conscious experience and working memory interact”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol7 No.4 April2003.
(View:Abstract or PDF)

Uma Ramamurthy, Sidney K. D'Mello, and Stan Franklin. "Modeling Memory Systems with Global Workspace Theory" (ASSC7 Abstract) presented at the Seventh Conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness - ASSC7 ( Memphis , May 30 - June 2, 2003).

Franklin Stan;March 2003. A computer-based model of Crick and Koch’s Framework for Consciousness. Editorial Review: Science & Consciousness Review.
(View:Abstract or PDF)


Baars, B. (2002). The conscious access hypothesis: origins and recent evidence. TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 6 (1), January 2002. (View: PDF)

Franklin Stan; Sept 2002. IDA on Will: It’s no Illusion. Editorial Review: Science & Consciousness Review.

Negatu, A., and S. Franklin . 2002. An action selection mechanism for 'conscious' software agents. Cognitive Science Quarterly 2:363-386.

Kelemen, A., Y. Liang, and S. Franklin . 2002. A Comparative Study of Different Machine Learning Approaches for Decision Making. In Recent Advances in Simulation, Computational Methods and Soft Computing, ed. E.Mastorakis. Piraeus , Greece : WSEAS Press.

McCauley, L., and S. Franklin . 2002. A Large-Scale Multi-Agent System for Navy Personnel Distribution. Connection Science 14:371-385.

Kelemen, A., Y. Liang, R. Kozma, and S. Franklin . 2002. Optimizing Intelligent Agents Constraint Satisfaction with Neural Networks. In Innovations in Intelligent Systems, ed. A. Abraham, and B. Nath. Heidelberg , Germany : Springer-Verlag.


Franklin, S.; 2001. An Agent Architecture Potentially Capable of Robust Autonomy. AAAI Spring Symposium on Robust Autonomy; American Association for Artificial Intelligence; Stanford , CA ; March 2001.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Franklin , S. 2001. Automating Human Information Agents. In Practical Applications of Intelligent Agents, ed. Z. Chen, and L. C. Jain. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Franklin , S. 2001. Conscious Software: A Computational View of Mind. In Soft Computing Agents: New Trends for Designing Autonomous Systems, ed. V. Loia, and S. Sessa . Berlin : Springer (Physica-Verlag), 1 - 46.

Franklin, S. (2001). Models as implementations of a theory, rather than simulations: Dancing to a different drummer. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 1059. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S., and A. Graesser. 2001. Modeling Cognition with Software Agents. In CogSci2001: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. J. D. Moore, and K. Stenning. Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; August 1-4, 2001.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Kondadadi, R., and S. Franklin . 2001. Deliberative Decision Making in “Conscious” Software Agents. In Proceedings Of Sixth International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics (AROB-01).
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Ramamurthy, U., A. Negatu, and S. Franklin ; 200 Learning Mechanisms for Intelligent Systems. SSGRR-2001 International Conference on Advances in Infrastructure for e-Business, e-Education and e-Science on the Internet L'Aquila , Italy . August 6-12, 2001.


Bogner, M., U. Ramamurthy, and S. Franklin . 2000. “Consciousness” and Conceptual Learning in a Socially Situated Agent. In Human Cognition and Social Agent Technology, ed. K. Dautenhahn. Amsterdam : John Benjamins.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PS)

Franklin , S. 2000. A "Consciousness" Based Architecture for a Functioning Mind. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Designing a Functioning Mind, Birmingham, England, April 2000, ed. A. Sloman.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Franklin , S. 2000. Building Life-Like "Conscious" Software Agents. Artificial Intelligence Communications 13:183-193.

Franklin , S. 2000. Deliberation and Voluntary Action in “Conscious” Software Agents. Neural Network World 10:505-521.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Franklin , S. 2000. Learning in "Conscious" Software Agents. In Workshop on Development and Learning, ed. J. Wang. Michigan State University ; East Lansing , Michigan , USA : NSF; DARPA; April 5-7, 2000.

Franklin , S. 2000. Modeling Consciousness and Cognition in Software Agents. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Groeningen, NL, March 2000, ed. N. Taatgen.
(View:Abstract or Doc or PDF)

Kondadati, R., D. Dasgupta, and S. Franklin 2000 An Evolutionary Approach for Job Assignment. Ninth International ISCA Conference on Intelligent Systems, ISCA.

McCauley, L., S. Franklin , and M. Bogner. 2000. An Emotion-Based "Conscious" Software Agent Architecture. In Affective Interactions, Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence ed., vol. 1814, ed. A. Paiva. Berlin : Springer.

Song, H., and S. Franklin . 2000. A Behavior Instantiation Agent Architecture. Connection Science 12:21–44.


Anwar, A., D. Dasgupta, and S. Franklin . 1999. Using Genetic Algorithms for Sparse Distributed Memory Initialization. International Conference Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO). July 1999.

Bogner, Myles. 1999. Realizing "consciousness" in software agents (in PDF). Doctoral dissertation, The University of Memphis.

Franklin , S. 1999 Action Selection and Language Generation in "Conscious" Software Agents. Workshop on Behavior Planning for Life-Like Characters and Avatars I3. Sitges , Spain March 1999.

Franklin, S., and A. Graesser. 1999. A Software Agent Model of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8:285-305.

McCauley, Lee, Franklin, Stan, and Bogner, Myles. An Emotion-Based "Conscious" Software Agent Architecture. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Affect in Interactions Towards a New Generation of Interfaces, Siena , Italy , October 21-22, 1999. New York : Springer-Verlag.

Negatu, A., and S. Franklin ; 1999. Behavioral learning for adaptive software agents Intelligent Systems: ISCA 5th International Conference; International Society for Computers and Their Applications - ISCA; Denver, Colorado; June 1999.


Franklin, S., A. Kelemen, and L. McCauley. 1998. IDA: A Cognitive Agent Architecture. In IEEE Conf on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. IEEE Press.

McCauley, T. L., and S. Franklin . 1998. An Architecture for Emotion. In AAAI Fall Symposium Emotional and Intelligent: The Tangled Knot of Cognition. Menlo Park , CA : AAAI Press.

Ramamurthy, U., S. Franklin , and A. Negatu. 1998. Learning Concepts in Software Agents. In From animals to animats 5: Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, ed. R. Pfeifer, B. Blumberg, J.-A. Meyer, and S. W. Wilson. Cambridge ,Mass: MIT Press.

Ramamurthy, U., M. Bogner, and S. Franklin . 1998. Conscious Learning in an Adaptive Software Agent. In Proceedings of the Second Asia Pacific Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning, ed. X. Yao, R. I. McKay, C. S. Newton, J. H. Kim, and T. Furuhashi. Canberra , Australia : University of New South Wales .
(View:Abstract or PDF or PS)

Zhang, Zhaohua, Dasgupta, Dipankar, and Franklin, Stan 1998. Metacognition in software agents using classifier systems. Proceedings of the Fifteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Madison , Wisconsin . Cambridge : MIT Press, 83-88.
(View:Abstract or Doc )

Zhang, Zhaohua, Franklin, Stan, Olde, Brent, Wan, Yun and Graesser, Art. 1998. Natural language sensing for autonomous agents. Proc. IEEE Joint Symposia on Intelligence and Systems, Rockville , Maryland , 374-81.


Franklin, Stan and Graesser, Art 1997. Is it an Agent, or just a Program?: A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents (with Art Graesser) Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, published as Intelligent Agents III, Springer-Verlag, 1997, 21-35.

Franklin, Stan, Autonomous Agents as Embodied AI Cybernetics and Systems, special issue on Epistomological Issues in Embodied AI, 28:6 1997 499-520.

Franklin, Stan, Action patterns, conceptualization, and artificial intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20(1), 23-24.

Franklin , Stan, Doran, J. E., Jennings , N., E., and Norman T., J., On Cooperation in Multi-Agent Systems, The Knowledge Engineering Review Vol 12 (3) 1997, 309-314.

Franklin , Stan, Global Workspace Agents, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4 (4) 1997, 322-234.

Newman, J., Baars, B., & Cho, S. (1997). A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention. Neural Networks 10 (7), pp. 1195-1206. (View PDF )


Franklin, S., A. Graesser, B. Olde, H. Song, and A. Negatu; 1996. “Virtual Mattie: an Intelligent Clerical Agent”. Symposium on Embodied Cognition and Action; AAAI; Cambridge , MA ; Nov.

Franklin, Stan, Song, Hongjun, and Negatu, Aregahegn, SUMPY: A Fuzzy Software Agent ed. F. C. Harris, Jr., Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the ISCA 5th International Conference, (Reno Nevada, June 1996) Raleigh NC : International Society for Computers and Their Applications - ISCA, 124-129.


Franklin, Stan, Artificial Minds, MIT Press.


Franklin, Stan, Zhou, Lijia, Character Recognition Agents, Proceedings of Artificial Life IV, MIT Press, 1994, 301-306.


Baars, B. J. 1988. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press. (PDF)


Baars, B. & Franklin, S. (2008). 10 Hertz Poster. (View: PDF)

Franklin, S. How the IDA model supports the Crick and Koch Framework. (View:Abstract or PDF)

Bogner, M., J. Maletic, & S. Franklin. ConAg: a reusable framework for developing "conscious" software agents. (View:Abstract or PDF)

Franklin, S. (1996). Coordination without Communication, unpublished manuscript. (View: HTML)

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